Basic Networking Tutorial

Computer networks consist of independent computers communicating over an interconnected medium that are linked by shared cables or wireless links to each other, with two or more computers joining forces to share data and peripherals such as modems, printers, tape backup drives or CD-ROM drives. Two or more computers may share modems, printers tape backup drives or CD-ROM drives when networked; phone company services enable customers to exchange email with one another as well as access the worldwide internet and hold real time video conferences remotely if connected using an IP phone company service and have real time video conferences using remote users whereas open sourced networks can be controlled using online collaborative tools allowing business operations increasingly dependent on email management relying heavily upon computer networking; companies like Verizon Megapath can deliver fast speeds needed by today's business operations relying heavily on email management as part of its essential business practices relying heavily on emails being administered online while business operations increasingly depend on emails being administered.

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Every network requires at least two computers that function either as server or client computers, networking interface cards (NIC), wired or wireless communication links and OS software such as Windows NT/2000, Novell NetWare Unix and Linux are present on each machine that makes up its infrastructure.

Network types:

Local Area Networks [LAN]

A Local Area Network, or LAN, consists of independent computers communicating over an in-house or university network medium and connected by standard networking protocols and media to form an autonomous entity. Common examples are found within buildings or campuses where such networks reside but they can connect three computers or hundreds used by thousands. Standard protocols have spread LAN usage globally in both business and education environments.

Wide-area networks

Entail linking geographically dispersed LANs together using wide area networking technologies like dedicated phone lines, dial-up lines (both synchronous and asynchronous), satellite connections and data packet carrier services. Wide area networking might consist of something as basic as providing employees with modem and remote access server phone numbers to use for calling into offices remotely, to connecting hundreds of branch offices globally using routing protocols to reduce transmission costs for data transmission costs.

Introduction to Internet Networking

Internet

provides global data transmission services including remote login, file transfer, email communication, World Wide Web pages and newsgroups across global networks.

Due to increased connection demand, millions of people now utilize the Internet as their communications highway. Once limited solely to military and academic organizations, today it handles information for every organization around the globe - personal resources for education, political participation and economic stability are readily accessible via this global medium.

Intranet

With advances in browser-based Internet applications, more private companies are adopting intranets. A private intranet offers similar Internet features but only accessible within its enterprise's walls; giving employees quick and secure access to business data in large businesses.

Metropolitan area networks.

Citywide computer network.

VPN stands for Virtual Private Network

VPN technology securely transfers data over the Internet into a remote access server on your office network via tunneling, saving both money and long distance call costs by securely accessing private networks using this method. A VPN may be established either through connecting directly with an ISP or connecting through another channel like Facebook and Instagram.

Category of Networks

Networks fall into two broad categories.

Peer-to-peer networking. No centralized servers exist in peer-to-peer networking - all computers are treated equally; usually each computer acts as Client/Server in turn without anyone acting as network administrator.

Peer-to-peer networks are ideal for smaller enterprises with localized users and few security concerns, and limited expansion plans.

Client/server data processing involves sharing of processing between client computer and a more powerful server computer.

Client/server networks offer maximum efficiency:

Database and spreadsheet management; accounting; communication; document control. Manage networks.

File Centralization. The client/server approach provides distributed or cooperative processing and relies on dividing application functions between client and server processors so application designers can organize them as best suits them based on work division; program designers can reduce CPU utilization for optimal hardware ROI.

Client-server application design enables providers to conceal function locations with little knowledge from users; users will likely never know whether an activity is taking place on PCs, servers, or both platforms simultaneously. Having this ability enables system implementers to upgrade parts of systems over time while protecting hardware and software investments without disrupting application operations and safeguarding investments made over time.

OSI Model:

Networking is guided by the OSI reference model, an international standard. This model serves as the most widely utilized networking environment description; suppliers develop network products based on this framework's specifications; it defines network hardware and software layers used for communication while aiding troubleshooting by providing component functions.

There are seven layers to learn in regards to network infrastructure: physical, data connection, network transport, session delivery and presentation as well as application.

Physical Layer of any network refers to its wires, cables, media and length as well as monitoring system-wide electrical signals.

Data Link Layer: This layer interprets network electrical signals. Furthermore, it influences printer and device data size and format as well as being network nodes themselves.

Furthermore, error detection and repair strategies can also be defined to ensure data can transfer unhindered.

Network Layer defines how two distinct networks are interconnected, while Transport Layer breaks data up into smaller packets for distribution to workstations (nodes). Session Layer helps transfer information across nodes by creating sessions between computers that need data transference services.

Presentation Layer encodes and decodes node data while Application Layer permits applications to interact with server operating systems such as Windows NT. Your web browser connects directly with these server operating systems so as to access data you've requested from them.

Ethernet

is one of the most widely adopted physical layer LAN technologies; other notable LANs include Token Ring, Fast Ethernet, FDDI ATM and LocalTalk. Due to its speed, affordability and installation ease of use it has gained widespread adoption by computer users across industries and most major network protocols alike. IEEE Standard 802.3 defines its configuration and interactions. The IEEE standard ensures efficient interactions among equipment and protocols connected via this medium.

IEEE 802.3u defines Fast Ethernet networks with increased transmission rates as Fast Ethernet networks; the standard increases speeds from 10 to 100 Mbps with minimal cable adjustments required for transmission. Fast Ethernet can be divided into three distinct varieties. 100BASE-TX for level 5 UTP cable, 100BASE-FX for fiber-optic cable and 100BASE-T4 are the three options most frequently seen today due to being interoperable with 10BASE-T Ethernet - but all have similar functionality and must follow certain protocol restrictions in order to work reliably together. Network managers need to keep several things in mind when adding Fast Ethernet: they must identify how many users in each network site require additional throughput, choose 100BASE-T backbone segments as necessary and procure hardware connecting these segments with 10BASE-T segments - this type of network promises even faster data transmission speeds in future networks!

Architecture of Token Ring | Token Ring

Token Ring differs from Ethernet by only transporting messages in one direction along its ring. Each device receives tokens from it to access data; when seeing messages copied and marked as read it will copy them locally before passing along through to be verified as read at its intended device and released back onto Token Ring by its creators.

At various points in time, PC vendors have offered support for Token Ring networks; as a result, many companies have installed them.

Structure of FDDI FDDI can transmit data up to 200 km (124 miles). FDDI uses token ring protocol, making the network suitable for transmitting large volumes of information across large geographic distances. FDDI-based local area networks typically accommodate thousands of users over large geographies.

Protocols:

Network protocols enable computer communication. A protocol dictates how computers on a network identify each other, transmit and process data packets as they flow between computers on that network, handle missing or damaged "packets," as well as manage missing/damaged packets that arrive with missing packets (packet loss/damage). Today's primary network protocols are TCP/IP for Unix platforms like Windows NT/95; IPX for Novell NetWare as well as DECnet AppleTalk NetBIOS/NetBEUI as primary network protocols for computer networks to interact.

Even though network protocols differ, they all utilize common cabling infrastructure. This method enables multiple protocols to coexist across a network medium while network builders leverage common hardware for various protocols - an aspect known as "protocol independence."

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Laurie

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