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Dated: Aug. 23, 2013

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In collective network topology it may happen that two users that are connected to opposite ends with a closer can not communicate because the digital signal is distorted over time and is not as recognizable. Therefore, a device is inserted that has two-way communication and performs restoration of digital signals. This enhances the quality of communication and you can also expand the reach of the network. However, this expansion can not go on forever. The standards of prescribe the longest time needed for two users to exchange Frames (Round-trip delay time). If you add up the delay time that is brought by the repeater and the delay by the meter of length during the "travel" of the signal through the guide you will get how long the largest possible delay between two closers is. The repeater separates the network into two physical segments, but it is still one collision domain. As it doesn't process FRAME it is considered a device of the first layer OSI models.
 Network switch


With the idea to take advantage of the good qualities of jumper they have developed a commutation switch switch, a device that is usually between 4 to 48 RJ45 ports and the next feature to remember the , it also remembers the port number associated with the MAC address. That data is stored in the working memory in a data set called the CAM table. Of course, during work it learns, and if the power goes out, it must relearn again. It should be connected to UPS! With the help of programing support and electronics you can create a separate connection between two users on the basis of memorizing their MAC addresses (L2 switch) so that they bother anyone during communication. If they don't bother anyone then there is no collision. Every port is a separate collision domain and because of that you can create a Full - Duplex flow. Of course, you have to have the smart NIC in your computer that will know how to take advantage of this. How it uses MAC addresses places it in the second layer devices of the OSI model. But the development of technologies and the drop of prices enabled the development of switches that can use the IP address of the package, and with that they are placed in the third layer of the OSI model. Of course they are much more complex and expensive. They are often modular, which means they can be upgraded with optic transceivers so you can establish a reliable and fast communication between them.

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