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Dated: Jan. 13, 2010

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The computer as we see it today is a result of extensive research and development through the decades. The reason of origin of the computer and a brief history of its evolution are outlined below.

The word 'computer' comes from the word compute which means 'to calculate'. Computers were developed from calculators as the need arose for more complex and scientific calculations. Charles Babbage is known as the father of computers because of his immense contribution to the world of programming. His idea was soon developed into a programmable computer that could calculate and print logarithmic tables with huge precision. But there were many practical problems and the progress was slow.

During the World War, the U.S military had a demand for fast computers that could perform extremely complex calculations and weather predictions in minutes. This was when the ENIAC was built, by a partnership between University of Pennsylvannia and the U.S government. After the landmark "Von Neumann Architecture" was introduced it considerably increased the speed of the computer since it used only one memory. The EDVAC and UNIVAC were built based on this architecture using vacuum tubes. All the computers built from 1941-1956 are called 'first generation computers'.

The transistor was invented in 1947 by William Shockley and Walter Brattain in the Bell Laboratories of U.S.A. The 'second generation' of computers utilized transistors, stored memory concept and magnetic-core memory making them smaller, faster, more reliable and more energy efficient than their predecessors. Throughout the 1960's there were a number of computers used commercially for large businesses and in universities like Honeywell and IBM.

The transistors were found to damage the more sensitive parts of a computer since they generated a lot of heat. In 1958, the IC (Integrated Circuit) was invented by Jack Kilby. This revolutionized computing since all the electronic components were on a single semiconductor chip made of silicon, drastically reducing the size of the computer. Also, new operating systems were developed, which allowed the running of many applications simultaneously. These computers developed from 1964-1971 were the 'third generation' machines.

The microprocessor ushered in the 'fourth generation' of computers. Thousands of integrated circuits were fit into a single miniscule chip using VLSI and ULSI technology. This made the computers smaller, more portable and much faster than before. In 1981, IBM introduced a computer especially designed for use at home. Apple followed with its 'Macintosh'. These small computers were very powerful and permitted linking of several machines that eventually led to networking and the internet.

The 'fifth generation' computers include the present day computers and the ones that are being developed. These devices are based on the concept of 'Artificial Intelligence'. They utilize various new technologies like 'Quantum computing' and 'superconductors'. One of the applications is in 'Voice recognition' which is a software that is used to recognize the user's voice and respond to it. Parallel processing is a relatively new concept that is still in the nascent stage but has immense potential.

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Princewil's Comment
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24 Thu Jan 2013
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Really? Thanks.

Agodi Lovelyn's Comment
Thanks so much, science is growing.
23 Wed Jan 2013
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It sure is.

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19 Sat Jan 2013
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may good bless you .. you have given so very helpful information to the people.... Thanks
31 Wed Oct 2012
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Thanks for such kind words Tahir.

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16 Mon Apr 2012
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Thanks for such kind words Sylvester.

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13 Mon Feb 2012
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 you are welcome rajbir :)

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I luv ur analysis,tanks 4 been there
25 Wed Jan 2012
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27 Tue Dec 2011
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07 Wed Dec 2011
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veenu yadav's Comment
its gud bt too long...
21 Fri Oct 2011
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 well veenu we try our best to cover all the areas of this topic in one article :)

Tosyanne's Comment
Nice breakdown of history. Good job
28 Wed Sep 2011
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 Thank you for the appreciation Tosyanne :)

19 Mon Sep 2011
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We're happy that you chose to come to us for answers Shakilah.

francis kimani's Comment
good and recommendable information
28 Thu Apr 2011
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you're welcome

MELEKTE's Comment
i am 11 and i want to be a computer scientist so this is good info for me. THANK YOU VERY MUCJ
12 Sat Feb 2011
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You're very welcome.

kritish's Comment
i read that one i hope u also its interesting
25 Sat Dec 2010
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I think it is.

Melekte's Comment
Scinse is sign of our life
19 Fri Nov 2010
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noor's Comment
there is a black blank screen why it is ? what happened here?
29 Fri Oct 2010
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Here is a tickler of a questions....if your screen is blank, how can you post a question?

buljor's Comment
why it is have a lacking about history of a computer? kindly please complete it.
15 Thu Jul 2010
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We will be posting a new article soon on an in depth look into computer history.

dulce's Comment
now i can answer my assignment with your info. thanks!
25 Fri Jun 2010
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Goodluck Dulce .

bryan but's Comment
23 Wed Jun 2010
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You're Welcome Bryan .

christopher's Comment
it's perfect. nice history
15 Tue Jun 2010
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jomar's Comment
09 Wed Jun 2010
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I hope you read the related articles too.

Xino's Comment
Perfect answers Thumbs up!
06 Sat Mar 2010
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dedd's Comment
thanks . great infos
15 Mon Feb 2010
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it is usefull to
28 Thu Jan 2010
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muhammad azrin anuar bin ismail's Comment
21 Thu Jan 2010
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Thanks  Buddy

kamran's Comment
science is incesing like fire
16 Sat Jan 2010
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Whatever floats your boat brother