Computer Hardwares

Computer Training Excuses - No ExcuseYou wouldn't go to a doctor who had never been to medical school, or hire a lawyer who never studied law. One side-effect of a world advancing as rapidly as ours is that fields are becoming more and more specialized and narrow. People can no longer get by on general knowledge in their careers, something I found out for myself not too long ago. I'd been out of high school for two years, scraping by on my own and picking up scraps of programming as I went. I saw all of the self-taught programmers breaking into the IT industry, and I hoped to do the same. After all, IT is one of the few industries out there where being creative and a quick learner is more important than a degree.
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Types of CPU's (Processors) - Core 2 QuadUpgradation is not something new. The computer has come a long way from being just a calculating machine to a device that has become a necessity everywhere. There is no industry or business that can't benefit from the usage of computers. Whether it's a managed server used for dedicated server hosting, personal desktop computers, or just your student friendly notebook computers. First generation computers made use of magnetic core memory whereas second generation saw the advent of transistors. It was in the third generation which began in the 1960s that gave rise to microprocessors.
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Basics of Computer Hardware Maintenance - Periodical computer maintenanceFans in a computer cases can often cause overheating, and with that permanent damage to the component. It is necessary that you check your fans from time to time. Components in the computer casing (motherboard, processor, hard drive...) can't and mustn't be replaced by a person who is not an expert in these things.
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N-Tier Application Architecture - N-tier applicationN-tier application architecture provides a model for developers to create a flexible and reusable application. By breaking up an application into tiers, developers only have to modify or add a specific layer, rather than have to rewrite the entire application over, if they decide to change technologies or scale up.
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GeForce GTX 770 DirectCU II Graphic Card from ASUS - Asus GeForce GTX 770 DirectCU II Asus Presented the graphic card GeForce GTX 770 DirectCU II. The card combines a redesigned DirectCU II cooling, digital control of power DIGI+VRM and durable Super Alloy Power components on the newest graphic card from the highest class.
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Asus Rampage IV Formula - Asus Rampage IVIn the basic things, the Rampage IV Formula doesn't have a lot of differences from the Rampage IV Extreme model. Of course, the dimensions are smaller, but there are no significant imperfections. The only thing that you notice immediately is the smaller number of memory slots, and the Formula has the standard four. Around the memory slots are elements of the power unit. They are similar to the Extreme model, so the Formula has the same Extreme Engine Digi+ II power unit.
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227 Categorized CompTIA A Plus Q and A - BIOSCompTIA A+ Certification is widely recognized as the first certification you should receive in an information technology (IT) career. Whether you are planning to specialize in PC hardware, Windows operating system management, or network management, the CompTIA A+ Certification exams measure the baseline skills you need to master in order to begin your journey toward greater responsibilities and achievements in information technology.

CompTIA A+ Certification is designed to be a "vendor-neutral" exam that measures your knowledge of industry-standard technology.

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Motherboards and Their Components - A typical ATX motherboard with support for Nvidia�s scalable link interface (SLI) technology.The motherboard represents the logical foundation of the computer. In other words, everything that makes a computer a computer must be attached to the motherboard. From the CPU to storage devices, from RAM to printer ports, the motherboard provides the connections that help them work together.
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TW Tech Glossary - Misplaced your bible? Well here it is - Tech Glosasary! This truly took a while to complete and should be used by all from beginners to advance techies.
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Parallel Computing - Parallel ComputingParallelism has sometimes been viewed as a rare and exotic sub area of computing, interesting but of little relevance to the average programmer. A study of trends in applications, computer architecture, and networking shows that this view is no longer tenable. Parallelism is becoming ubiquitous, and parallel programming is becoming central to the programming enterprise. A parallel computer is a set of processors that are able to work cooperatively to solve a computational problem.
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How Does a Motherboard Work? - motherboard In the event of taking an existing computer in for repairs only to be told that a new motherboard is needed, it may sound like it is very expensive to buy. The good news is that motherboards come by very cheap compared to purchasing a new PC. Many online retailers specializing in computer parts sell motherboards for under $100 for a board that meets the requirements of building a high-end computer for a lot more, although there are boards that cost more for what a builder needs for the ultimate custom PC.
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3 Best Motherboards of 2011 - ASUS P8Z68 DeluxeThe tech-savvy should be well aware of the benefits of building their own personal computers. The relatively easy process of assembling various components can not only save you a boatload of money, but also supply you with the perfect rig for your individual needs. Whether you are updating a current machine or building a new one from scratch, the most important part you buy will probably be the motherboard. Involved in almost every major computing process, a motherboard can make or break your personal computer. However, technology is changing so rapidly that it's sometimes hard to know what's cutting edge and what's outdated. But, no matter what you're looking for, we've got you covered. Below are the three best motherboards of 2011, as determined by price, performance and durability. Since motherboards tend to be divided between Intel and AMD processors, a comparable board for the other processor is included in each category.
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What is a Motherboard?

The motherboard is the main circuit board inside your PC. Every components at some point communicates through the motherboard, either by directly plugging into it or by communicating through one of the motherboards ports. The motherboard is one big communication highway. Its purpose inside your PC is to provide a platform for all the other components and peripherals to talk to each other.

Intel - D865GLCLK - Socket 478 Motherboard with Audio, Video, AGP 8X/4X/1X, USB 2.0, Serial ATA, Hyper-Threading Technology and Gigabit LAN Support

Types of Motherboards

The type of motherboards depends on the CPU it was designed for. You can therefore categories motherboards by which socket type they have. e.g. Socket A, Socket 478 etc. The Type of motherboard you buy is very important, as it will need to house your CPU, and they are not interchangeable. When buying a motherboard, it will always tell you what socket type it has.

When Buying a Motherboard

As everything you have on the PC at some point needs the motherboard, you need to consider these components when buying a motherboard. Foe example, if you have a lot of devices with a PCI interface that you wish to use, there is little point buying a motherboard that only offers you 3 PCI slots. Like wise with memory, you have to make sure that there are enough slots for the amount of memory you have or wish to have.

The motherboard also needs the correct type of interface for your Memory, Graphics card, Hard disks and other items as well. You will find that most motherboards offer everything you need however it needs checking on when buying. Its especially important to pay detail to your motherboard if you want to use older components, which a new motherboard may or may not support.

The major difference between motherboards that support the same CPU is the model of the chipset (more on the chipset later). Different chipsets offer different performance and different features in terms of memory support, AGP port speed, Multiplier numbers, Bus speeds and much more.

Intel - D865GLCLK - Socket 478 Motherboard with Audio, Video, AGP 8X/4X/1X, USB 2.0, Serial ATA, Hyper-Threading Technology and Gigabit LAN Support

Speed of a Motherboard

Motherboards have got to be one of the hardest components to measure the speed of. Performance can really only be measured by benchmarking using the same components in several motherboards of the same type. You often find that motherboards with the same chipset have roughly the same performance in real world tests. The minor differences that do occur are down to the quality of the materials used and the quality of the manufacturing.

The Motherboards speeds that are quoted on the box are maximum supported speeds for other components. For example motherboards will quote the maximum FSB (Front Side Bus) speed. However without a CPU that also supports this speed, it will never be reached. Likewise when it quotes the maximum memory speed. The memory of this speed has to be present.

What is a Motherboard Chipset?

A motherboard chipset controls all the data that flows through the data channels (buses) of the motherboard. The primary function of the motherboard chipset is to direct this data to the correct area's of the motherboard, and therefore the correct components.

Components of a Motherboard

The motherboard contains many connections for all type of components. Motherboards contain expansion slots such as the ISA, PCI, AGP and DIMM sockets. It also contains external connections for your onboard sound card, USB ports, Serial and Parallel ports, PS/2 ports for your keyboard and mouse as well as network and Firewire connections.

So the motherboard has a massive part to play in the workings of your PC. Components that you buy all rely on the motherboard to have the correct connections are available and working. Its best to buy a decent motherboard especially if you plan on buying extra's in the future.




On-line auctions are now the number one location where thefts and scams will occur. If at all possible look at the sellers history or profile. Always remember if it sounds to be good to true, it probably is.


With the advances in technology it is now possible for anyone to make their own CDs it is possible that you may be buying copied software which is illegal. Ensure that the software you are buying is a authentic copy, documentation is included with the software, and the the CD does not appear to be burned. Generally burned CDs will have a unusual color such as green or gold tint. However it is still possible for someone to make CDs which can look like an ordinary CD. Another way of possibly determining if Illegal copy is the price. If for example you see a Adobe Photoshop 5.0 for $20-$70 dollars its more then likely not a authentic copy. If it sounds to be good to be true it probably is.

On-line Auctions

Companies such as E-bay or Yahoo may provide auctions which other people have the capability of listing products that they are selling. We recommend that if you purchase through an an auction that you only pay by check to prevent possible credit card fraud. If you need to user your credit card consider such options as PayPal.

Return Policy

Ensure that the you verify what the resellers return policy may be incase the device is not functioning or is not compatible with your computer.
Extra Note: Generally software cannot be returned to the place of purchase to help prevent software piracy.


Verify the warranty on the product insuring that it is either provided by the manufacture of the product or the place of purchase.

CPU Compatible

There are a wide variety of different types of CPU Sockets and Slots. When looking at purchasing a motherboard ensure it is compatible with the CPU you have or that it will be compatible with the CPU you plan on purchasing.


Upgrading a motherboard on the computer allows for new improved hardware to be added into the computer.


Upgrading a motherboard on the computer will speed up the overall performance of the computer. May not be noticeable.

P4 System Optimization During Installation

When you install OS (other than WinXP) on an Intel 845 or 850 chipset based Pentium4 system, you need to install the chipset driver before any other drivers, such as video card and sound card. Here's the installation order.

  1. OS (Win2000, 9x, Me)
  2. Service Pack (if necessary)
  3. Chipset Driver (usually in the CD that comes with your motherboard)
  4. Drivers for Other Devices

It makes difference in performance, especially for video.

ASUS P4T + 1GB RDRAM + Win9X/Me = Not Good

Currently, ASUS P4T motherboards with 1GB of populated RDRAM will not work within a Windows 9X/Me environment. This is not much of a tragedy since there is no particular reason to have 1GB of RAM on a Win9X/Me system -- they only offer performance gains up to 512MB. However, this may cause problems for people intending to do dual-boot systems, so be aware.

General P4 Guidelines

P4 systems currently require RDRAM memory (Rambus, RIMM..). The P4 platform will supposedly support SDRAM by the end of 2001.

General P4 Guidelines

Boxed CPUs come with 2 x 64MB (total of 128MB) RIMM. These are not ECC. Intel may begin packaging 2 x 128MB RIMMs in the future.

General P4 Guidelines

RDRAM can be PC600, 700 or 800. The modules that come with the CPU are PC800, the fastest type.

General P4 Guidelines

Memory has to be installed as a pair. That's why the CPU comes with 2 x 64MB, instead of 1 x 128MB. The pair of the memory has to be the same size, type (ECC or non-ECC) and speed (PC600 or PC800).

General P4 Guidelines

The case has to have 4 specific holes to support a big heatsink. An Antec case (#A58) and a mid tower case (#A51) have the holes. The new aluminum cases do as well.

General P4 Guidelines

P4 motherboards have a new 12V connection. In order to use P4 with a regular power supply (without the 12V connector), you need to use a PC Power&Cooling 12VATX adapter. This will convert the regular power connection to 12VATX connection. Or, you can replace the power supply with one that already has the 12VATX connection.

Microsoft Windows 2000 Patch for AGP Applications on AMD Athlon and AMD Duron Processors

AMD says, "An issue has been identified that could result in the corruption of video data shared between AGP graphics adapters and AMD Athlon or AMD Duron processors when running Microsoft Windows 2000. This issue is independent of system chipset and has been observed when running Ziff-Davis 3D Winbench 2000 and Mad Onion 3DMark 2000 in benchmarking mode. AMD and Microsoft have worked together to identify a patch that involves adding a key to the registry. To add the key run the registry key installation file below or add the registry key as detailed in Microsoft KnowledgeBase article Q270715. AMD recommends that AMD Athlon and AMD Duron users with AGP graphics adapters running Windows 2000 install this patch.

Did You Know?

  • Most computer dealers say they build their computers. If they carry a 3 year warranty they are built by someone else or the warranty is out of their back pocket. Very few parts outside of monitors carry anything pass one year, a few motherboards and even less hardrives carry a 3 year warranty.
  • Integrated Motherboard: A motherboard where some or all of the internal input or output devices are soldered into it.
  • Motherboard was the original name of the what is now called "main board." The difference is that motherboards had "daughter boards" plugged into them. These "daughter boards" later became simply "cards." Most brands of "main boards" have no cards, some don't even have plug-in slots for such.
  • Integrated motherboards cause problems when wanting to upgrade your computer, also, LOTS more money. EXAMPLE: Most Compaq /HPs, Dells, Gateways, IBMs have only three pieces usable in an upgrade: the CD ROM ($25 new), hard drive (usually too small to be used, $65-$95 new) and the 3.5" drive ($10 new).
  • The motherboard is the main board in a computer that supports the processor (CPU) and all internal input and output devices. Input and output devices are the video, modem, sound card, hard drive and floppy controllers, memory (RAM), network cards. All modern PCI motherboards, thanks to Intel, contain integrated floppy and IDE hard drive controllers. Again thanks to Intel & Via almost all motherboard now have integrated sound also. Luckily we can disable the on-board sound and put in a real Sound Blaster sound card.
  • Compaq/HP, Gateway, Acer, IBM, Pionex, Dell, NEC, Sony and Packard Bell computers make good landfill after crushing. That is if they have biodegradable motherboards. A case of Samsung and most Maxtor hard drives make fair boat anchors.

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